Critical Thinking TechniquesCritical Thinking, Moral Integrity and Citizenship
Some Thoughts on How to Teach for the Intellectual Virtues To teach for the intellectual virtues, one must recognize the significant differences between the higher order critical thinking of a fair-minded critical thinker and that of a self-serving critic
Critical Thinking Techniques
The three are developed together only in an atmosphere, which encourages the intellectual virtues intellectual courage, intellectual empathy, intellectual good faith or integrity, intellectual perseverance, intellectual fair-mindedness, and faith in reason. We must feel obliged to hear them in their strongest form to ensure that we do not condemn them out of our own ignorance or bias. The response of the citizenry to such issues defines the moral character of society.
Their standards for thinking will be implicit in their own thinking, rather than in texts, teachers, or the authority of a peer group. How many does john have left? Serves to tell the students that subtraction is the appropriate operation to perform. Superficially absorbed content, the inevitable by-product of extensive but shallow coverage, inevitably leads to intellectual arrogance.
The human mind, whatever its conscious good will, is subject to powerful, self-deceptive, unconscious egocentricity of mind. Students are drilled in the key-word algorithm so well that they will use subtraction, for example, in almost any problem containing the word left. If they succeed on those problems, we and they congratulate each other on the fact that they have learned some powerful mathematical techniques.
To take any experience apart, then, students must be sensitive to three distinctive sets of questionsrnrnwhat are the raw facts, what is the most neutral description of the situation? If one describes the experience this way, and another disagrees, on what description can they agree? Rnwhat interests, attitudes, desires, or concerns do i bring to the situation? Am i always aware of them? Why or why not? Rnhow am i conceptualizing or interpreting the situation in light of my point of view? How else might it be interpreted? Rnrnstudents must also explore the interrelationships of these parts how did my point of view, values, desires, etc. I am also better off if i dont feel a keen need to be fair to your point of view. Our egocentric side never ceases to catalogue experiences in accord with its common and idiosyncratic fears, desires, prejudices, stereotypes, caricatures, hopes, dreams, and assorted irrational drives.
In fact, they may be able to use such techniques mechanically while lacking some rudimentary thinking skills. Let us now consider the interdependence of these virtues, how hard it is to deeply develop any one of them without also developing the others. What is truly marvelous, it seems to me, is how little we take ourselves to be victims of these falsifying thoughts, and how little we try to break them down.
Whether the energy, the resources, and the insights necessary for this development can be significantly mustered remains open. We tend to believe what justifies our vested interest or validates our strongest desires. All experiences have three elements, each of which may require some special scrutiny in the analytic process 1) something to be experienced (some actual situation or other) 2) an experiencing subject (with a point of view, framework of beliefs, attitudes, desires, and values) and 3) some interpretation or conceptualization of the situation. On the other hand, it is doubtful that the fundamental conflicts and antagonisms in the world can be solved or resolved by sheer power or abstract good will. Most teaching and most texts are, in this sense, epistemologically unrealistic and hence foster intellectual arrogance in students, particularly in those with retentive memories who can repeat back what they have heard or read.
Critical Thinking and the Liberal Arts | AAUP
Science and technology loom large in debates about higher education, but if democracy and a vibrant culture are among our goals, liberal learning must be part of the mix.
Critical Thinking TechniquesCritical Thinking Skills - SkillsYouNeed
Critical Thinking Techniques 16 Nov 2017. To take any experience apart, then, students must be sensitive to three distinctive sets of questions what are the raw facts, what is the most neutral description of the situation? If one describes the experience this way, and another disagrees, on what description can they agree? What interests, attitudes, desires, or concerns do i bring to the situation? Am i always aware of them? Why or why not? How am i conceptualizing or interpreting the situation in light of my point of view? How else might it be interpreted? Students must also explore the interrelationships of these parts how did my point of view, values, desires, etc.
Critical Thinking Skills - SkillsYouNeed
Linear algebra and differential equations were old hat. In fact, the situation was so extreme that many students chose to subtract in a problem that began mr. The good-hearted person who lacks intellectual virtues will act morally only when morally grasping a situation or problem does not presuppose intellectual insight. Our egocentric or sociocentric side readily believes positive information about those we like and negative information about those we dislike. They werent explicitly taught to us, so we dont have to explicitly teach them to our children.
I can reason well in domains in which i am prejudiced hence, eventually, reason my way out of prejudices only if i develop mental benchmarks for such reasoning. Such thought often helps us get ahead in the world, maximize our power or advantage, and get more of what we want. I may assume, for example that i know just what youre going to say (before you say it), precisely what you are really after (before the evidence demonstrates it), and what actually is going on (before i have studied the situation carefully). To determine for ourselves which is which, we must not passively and uncritically accept what we have learned. The penalties for non-conformity can be severe.
Intellectual integrity is clearly difficult to develop. We need courage to be true to our own thinking in such circumstances. Arial,helvetica,sans-seriftheir settlement relies on circumstances and events that are interpreted in a variety of (often conflicting) ways. To cultivate the kind of intellectual independence implied in the concept of strong sense critical thinking, we must recognize the need to foster intellectual (epistemological) humility, courage, integrity, perseverance, empathy, and fair-mindedness. To become more rational it is not enough to have experiences nor even for those experiences to have meanings. They argue that the cognitive and affective are obviously separate since many intelligent, well-educated people lack moral insight or sensitivity and many less intelligent, poorly educated, or uneducated people are morally good. I would generalize as follows just as the development of intellectual humility is an essential goal of critical thinking instruction, so is the development of intellectual courage, integrity, empathy, perseverance, fair-mindedness, and confidence in reason. It does not imply spinelessness or submissiveness. These model experiences must be charged with meaning for us. Though both share a certain command of the micro-skills of critical thinking and hence would, for example, score well on tests such as the watson-glaser critical thinking appraisal or the cornell critical thinking tests, they are not equally good at tasks, which presuppose the intellectual virtues.Someone with critical thinking skills can: Understand the links between ideas. Determine the importance and relevance of arguments and ideas. Recognise, build and appraise arguments. Identify inconsistencies and errors in reasoning. Approach problems in a consistent and systematic way.